The Weimar Republic (or the German Reich, by its official name) was formed in 1919 to replace the imperial form of government at the end of World War One. It was named after the city of Weimar, where the constitutional assembly to establish the Republic took place.
In the aftermath of World War One, the Weimar Republic had numerous problems to contend with, such as hyperinflation, suppressing political extremists and maintaining turbulent relationships with the war’s Allies. Conversely, successes and reforms in Germany were achieved under the Republic. These included the reformation of the currency and some reductions to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles. As a result of the Republic, the Treaty’s requirements for Germany’s disarmament were never fully met, and Germany only ever paid back a fraction of the concessions it was due to pay to other countries.
The Weimar Republic began to decline from 1930, when President Hindenburg assumed emergency powers to support the Chancellor’s administration. This was followed by the Great Depression, which saw a huge surge in unemployment and a disastrous policy of deflation. It was during this time that the relatively small National Socialist (Nazi) party began to gather more votes after promising to improve Germany’s situation.