Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

warsaw ghetto uprisingWhen deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto began in 1942, many residents believed that those who were being deported were being sent to labour camps in the East. By the end of 1942, however, they had received information on the true horrors of what was taking place once the transports reached their final destination. Underground resistance forces formed within the ghetto; in January 1943, when the Nazis arrived to undertake another mass deportation, many Jews fought back. Although not entirely successful, this resistance meant that the Nazis took 5,000 Jews from the ghetto, rather than the 8,000 proposed.

From then on, the two main resistance organisations, the ŻZW and ŻOB, took charge of the ghetto, executing any Nazi collaborators and a number of Jewish police officers. On 19 April 1943, Nazi police and SS auxiliary forces arrived in the ghetto, aiming to liquidate the entire area within three days.Those remaining in the ghetto, however, were ready for them, and ambushed the Nazi forces. They began firing and throwing hand grenades and Molotov cocktails at their captors, causing the surprised Germans an immediate number of losses. The fighting continued in this way for several days, before SS-und-Polizeiführer Jürgen Stroop gave the Jews an ultimatum to surrender. This was, of course, rejected outright, so Stroop’s forces began to systematically burn down buildings in the ghetto with flamethrowers and fire bottles. Organised defence began to collapse after 29 April, when remaining fighters from the ŻZW escaped the ghetto, having lost all their commanders, and ran into the Michalin forest. Remaining Jewish civilians mostly hid in dugouts, but were often smoked out or drowned by the Nazis. On 8 May, the Germans also discovered the main command post of the ŻOB resistance movement; most of the organisation’s leadership and other fighters committed mass suicide by swallowing cyanide in this dugout. They were buried where they died, in the grounds of 18 Miła Street. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising came to an official end on 16 May 1943, with the symbolic demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw. Around 13,000 Jews had died during the Uprising, whilst another 50,000 were shipped off to concentration and death camps in its aftermath. Nevertheless, the Jews of the ghetto had held out for almost a month, and sent a clear message to the Nazis that they were prepared to die with dignity rather than be meekly led to the gas chambers.

WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING
United States Holocaust Memorial Center

American Experience
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 19 – May 16, 1943)
PBS

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
This Day in History
History.com

Holocaust Resistance:
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
(April 19 – May 19, 1943)
Jewish Virtual Library

Poland’s Jews: A tragic history
BBC News Europe

Warsaw Ghetto and Uprising
Fold3

Monument to Warsaw Ghetto Heroes
Article and photos about a Memory Lane that was marked out through the former Ghetto.

Ghetto Fighter’s House Museum
Itzhak Katzenelson Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum
This was the first Holocaust museum in the world and also the first of its kind to be founded by Holocaust survivors. It is located at the Ghetto Fighter’s Kibbutz in northern Israel.

Battle for the Warsaw Ghetto
Report from the Jewish Workers Underground Movement
22 June 1943
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team

The Richard Korherr Report
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team

The Korherr Report
Aktion Reinhard Camps

The Stroop Report:
The Warsaw Ghetto Is No More
Jewish Virtual Library

The Stroop Report
The Holocaust Documents

The Stroop Report
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team

PDF:
Extract From a Report by the “Delegatura” To London on the Warsaw Ghetto Revolt
Yad Vashem

The Last Letter From Ghetto Revolt Commander Mordecai Anielewicz, Warsaw
April 23, 1943
Yad Vashem

The Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto
Voices From the Inferno
Yad Vashem
Videos and image gallery

January – April 1943: Preparing for the Uprising and Building Bunkers
Voices From the Inferno
Yad Vashem
Videos and image gallery

January 1943: The First Armed Resistance in the Ghetto
Voices From the Inferno
Yad Vashem
Videos and image gallery

In the Bunkers During the Uprising
Voices From the Inferno
Yad Vashem
Videos and image gallery

THE WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING
Poetry and images

Photo Gallery:
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Polish Greatness

The Stroop Collection
Photographs from the Warsaw Ghetto
Yad Vashem

The Stroop Report
Photo Gallery
Aktion Reinhard Camps

Photos: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, I
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust
Florida Center for Instructional Technology

Photos: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, II
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust
Florida Center for Instructional Technology

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