Establishment of first ghetto in Poland = Piotrkow
When thinking about the Jewish ghettos of the Holocaust, most people think of those constructed in large towns and cities such as Warsaw, Krakow and Łódź. The first ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe, however, was founded in the city of Piotrków Trybunalski, just 38 days after the German invasion of Poland. The area had been occupied by the Wehrmacht on 5th September 1939, and was made into a Kreis (county seat) of the Łódź Distract in the newly-formed Reichsgau Wartheland.
The Kreis was under the command of Oberbürgermeister Hans Drexler, but it was on the orders of Reinhard Heydrich that the ghetto was formed. It is not clear how many Jews passed through the Piotrków ghetto, but estimates range from 16,500-28,000 people living in an area more suited to 6,000. The ghetto was also an ‘open type’, meaning it did not have barbed wire or as many restrictions in movement as later Nazi ghettos. Piotrków ghetto was eventually liquidated in October 1942, when those remaining in the ghetto were deported to either the camps at Treblinka or Majdanek.
Piotrkow Trybunalski Ghetto
Aktion Reinhardt Camps
The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe
Piotrków Trybunalski Ghetto Tax List