Beer Hall Putsch
On 26th September 1923, the Bavarian Prime Minister Eugene von Knilling declared a state of emergency after a period of political violence. State Commissioner Gustav von Kahr was granted dictatorial powers. Reacting to this news, Adolf Hitler announced he would be holding 14 mass meetings – Kahr immediately moved to ban these. Worried that his followers would turn to the Communists, Hitler felt that it was time for a more extreme course of action. He was inspired by Mussolini’s successful March on Rome in October 1922 and believed that the Nazis could take Munich in the same fashion.
On the evening of 8th November 1923, Hitler, his associates and members of the SA stormed the Bürgerbräukeller beer hall where Kahr was giving a speech.
The putsch, however, was a failure. In the ensuing clashes, 16 Nazis and four policemen were killed. Two days after the putsch, Hitler was arrested for treason. His trial gave him a new national platform, and even his judges were moved by his speeches about German nationalism. He was sentenced to five years in Landsberg prison, but served only nine months. It was during his imprisonment that Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), his political manifesto.