Hitler Youth

Hitler YouthEven before the Nazi Party was founded, a strong youth movement already existed in Germany. It began in the 1890s and was known as the Wandervögel, a male-only movement featuring a back-to-nature theme. They longed for a Jugendkultur, a culture of youth led by youth, in which they would be truly valued as individuals.

Hitler Youth was established in 1922 as a paramilitary division of the Nazi Party composed of youth 14 to 18 years of age. They were seen as the future of the German Reich and were indoctrinated in Nazi ideology at a very young age –  the principles of honour, sacrifice and anti-Semitism. As part of their scouting activities they went camping, played sports, exercised and competed for badges. They also distributed Nazi propaganda literature, and recruited new members. Initially none received weapons training, but during the Allied bombing of Germany,  Hitler Youth boys charged into battle willing to die for Hitler. The girls  were groomed for the role of wife & mother.

“It was a great feeling. You felt you belonged to a great nation again. Germany was in safe hands and I was going to help to build a strong Germany. But my father of course felt differently about it. [He warned] ‘Now Henrik, don’t say to them what i am saying to you. I always argued with my father as I was very much in favor of the Hitler regime which was against his background as a working man.” (Henrik Metelmann)

Hitler Youth Movement
History Learning Site

Hitler Youth
Beginnings
The History Place

Hitler Youth
Road to Power 1923-1933
The History Place

Hitler Youth
Prelude to War 1933-1938
The History Place

Hitler Youth
Timeline and Organization
The History Place

League of German Girls
History Learning Site

Indoctrinating Youth
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The Hitler Youth: Nazifying a Generation of Germans
Brenda Ralph Lewis

Hitler Youth History: The Pre-War Government Years (1933-39)
Historical Boy’s Uniforms

Youth Ceremonies —
Rites of Passage for the Youth
German Propaganda Archive

YOUNG PEOPLE IN NAZI GERMANY
Dunns History Notes

Hitler Youth
The History Place

Hitler Youth Speakers
German Propaganda Archive

War Library of the Hitler Youth
German Propaganda Archive

Hitler Youth Movement
History Learning Site

Young Girls League
History Learning Site

Bund Deutscher Mädel (The League of German Girls)
Jewish Virtual Library

Bund Deutscher Mädel – A Short History
Bund Deutscher Mädel History

Wartime Activities
Bund Deutscher Mädel History

The Belief and Beauty Society
Bund Deutscher Mädel History

Becoming a Jujngmadel
Bund Deutscher Mädel History

German Girls’ League
Spartacus Educational

The Hitler Youth: An Effective Organization for Total War
Military History Online

The Nazi Party:
Hitler Youth
Jewish Virtual Library

The Führer and the German Youth
by Baldur von Schirach
German Propaganda Archive

10 Disturbing Pieces of Nazi Education Propaganda
Master of Education Degree Guide

Photo: Lessons in Racial Politics at a Hitler Youth Leadership School (c. 1935)
German History in Documents and Images

Video Clip & Discussion Questions:
Young People in Nazi Germany
Learning Zone Broad Band
Class Clips
BBC

Baldur von Schirach
Wikipedia

National Socialist German Students’ League
Wikipedia

Baldur von Schirach
Reich Youth Leader
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team

Baldur von Schirach
History Learning Site

Exhibit traces the 20-year history of Hitler Youth
The Jewish Chronicle

Hitler Youth: Thought-Control and Brainwashing in Nazi Germany
Views of History

CHILDREN DURING THE HOLOCAUST
Project Aladin

‘I was a naive fool’
The Guardian

Life in the Third Reich
by Henry Metelmann
New perspective Volume 2. Number 3. March 1998

 

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