Historical European Anti-Semitism

 

historical anti-semitism“Anti-Semitism” refers to prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish religion or heritage, in all its forms. There was a very long history of anti-Semitism across Europe, for many centuries before the arrival of Hitler and the Nazi Party in the early 20th century. In order to understand the Holocaust in this context, it can be useful to have some basic knowledge of this history, including some of the events that had a significant impact on the lives of European Jews, as well as the myths and beliefs underlying these actions.

 

 

Historian Raoul Hilberg has summed up the pattern of anti-Semitism as follows:

• 12th century Crusades:”You have no right to live amongst us as Jews”.

• 16th century ghettos: “You have no right to live amongst us”.

• 20th century Nazis:”You have no right to live”.

The following links provide some basic definitions of anti-Semitism, as well as a historical overview of European anti-Semitism through different periods of history.

LINKS:

Anti-Semitism
Anti-Defamation League
Definition of anti-Semitism, placed in context of European history and the rise of the Nazis

History of Anti-Semitism
Wikipedia
A detailed overview, tracing anti-Semitism through the ages in Europe and elsewhere

Summary Of Geographical Movement Of European Jews in the Past 2,000 Years
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust
Overview of the displacement of the Jewish people, dating back to the Roman Empire, with maps

The Deep Roots of Anti-Semitism in European Society*1
Manfred Gerstenfeld
Jewish Political Studies Review 17:1-2 (Spring 2005)
Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
A discussion of modern and historic anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism
Learning – Voices of the Holocaust
British Library

Anti-Semitism
Historical Boy’s Clothing
A good historic overview of anti-Semitism in Europe and some major events

The medieval origins of 20th century anti-semitism in Germany
Oxford University Press Blog
This article ties past events with the anti-Semitism in Germany prior to WWII, using some interesting charts and map

Antisemitism
by Samuel Salzborn
European History Online
A detailed explanation of anti-Semitism from the early 1900;s to present times

Anti-Semitism in European Middle Ages 800-1400
Encyclopedia Judaica
Good overview of the treatment of the Jews in the Medieval period, with interesting images

Medieval anti-Semitism
Wikipedia

Anti-Semitism 1492-1700:
Encyclopedia Judaica

19th century anti-Semitism
Alpha History
Analysis of anti-Semitism in Germany in the years leading up to WWII, placing this in thee contest of changes that were taking place in the region

Anti-Semitism 1700-1914 in Europe
Encyclopaedia Judaica
Discussion of the effects of European enlightenment and Jewish emancipation. Includes summaries by country

Anti-Semitism 1700-1914 in Russia
Encyclopedia Judaica
Discussion of the effects of the Russian revolution, on the perception and treatment of Russian Jews

The German-Jewish Epoch of 1743-1933:Tragedy or Success Story?
Book Review:
THE PITY OF IT ALL: A PORTRAIT OF THE GERMAN-JEWISH EPOCH 1743-1933,
The American Council for Judaism
Interesting background history of the Jews in Germany, which offers a view of German-Jewish relations that stresses not only anti-Semitism but also the success story of Jews living in Germany and contributing to German culture

Book Review:
A People Apart: the Jews in Europe, 1789-1939
Reviews in History
Review of a comprehensive history, which highlights the complexities involved in studying and understanding the Holocaust

Waves of Anti-Semitism
From the end of the 18th Century and 19th Centuries
The Jewish Agency for Israel
History of shifting attitudes towards the Jews, in the social sciences, setting the background for the rise and prevalence of racial theories

Anti-Semitism lines in England 1870-1939
Encyclopedia Judaica
Summary of the rise of Nazi parties and social Darwinism; interesting images

ANTISEMITISM IN HISTORY: RACIAL ANTISEMITISM, 1875–1945
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Development of social Darwinism theories, and the use of racial politics

ANTI-SEMITISM IN GERMANY:
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
NOWHERE TO TURN: PLIGHT OF GERMAN JEWS IN NAZI GERMANY, 1933-1941
Summary of German responses to the Jewish people, and their motives from the 1500s to the advent of Hitler’s Nazi movement.

ANTISEMITISM IN HISTORY: THE ERA OF NATIONALISM, 1800–1918
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The Making of Antisemitism as a Political Movement. Political History as Cultural History (1879-1914)
Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History
An analysis of the development of political anti-Semitism in Europe, as distinct from religious discrimination, that arose from the transformations affecting Europe at the turn of the century

 

Political Antisemitism and its Christian Antecedent. Trying to Make Sense of Nonsense
Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History
An analysis of the deeply inbred medieval roots of Jew-hating in the Christian world

Antisemitism
CFCA – The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism
Some definitions of anti-Semitism, along with a detailed timeline of anti-Semitism

Op-Ed: Intellectuals and Anti-Semitism
Arutz Sheva

Intellectuals and anti-Semitism: A Millenial Tradition
Jewish Tribune

PDF:
Anti-Semitism
Universität Hamburg
Includes a detailed chart, outlining prevalent myths about the Jews, across various time periods, as well as typical stereotypes of the period and consequences for the Jewish people

PDF:
From “Latent Antisemitism” To The Final Solution 
Professor Shulamit Volkov argues that anti-Semitism was a necessary by not sufficient explanation for the way people across Europe gave in and went along with the Nazis

PDF:
Anti-Semitism in Europe Before the Holocaust
WILLIAM I. BRUSTEIN AND RYAN D. KING
SAGE Journals
European anti-Semitism reached a peak in the late 1800’s; this article reviews the many forms of anti-Semitism across Europe. The authors identify and describe four types of anti-Semitism: religious, racial, economic, and political. They compare these aspects in five different countries: Germany, Great Britain,
France, Italy, and Romania.

Course Curriculum:
Anti-Semitism: Origins and Background
By Nehemia Levin
Yale – New Haven Teacher’s Institute
A proposed lesson plan that addresses many key points and events of the Holocaust, designed to appeal to students lacking a strong interest in learning history.

PDF:
Creating Otherness out of the Air: the German Volk and Antisemitism

Antisemitic Parties and Movements
The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe
A very detailed discussion about the emergence of anti-Semitic movements from the late 1800’s, to the post-communist era, in Poland, Hungary, Romania and Russia

Christianity and anti-Semitism
Links to Wikipedia articles related to Christianity and anti-Semitism

Christianity and antisemitism
Wikipedia

A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust From the 3rd Century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium

Judeophobia – History and analysis of Antisemitism, Jew-Hate and anti-“Zionism”
The beginnings of Christian Anti-Semitism – Judeophobia (Jew Hate) in Early Christian thought
Zionism – Israel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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